Trading Basics

  • Bank Stress Tests

    What Is A Bank Stress Test? Bank stress tests are administered by some of the world's major central banks to assess the ability of the largest commercial banks they oversee to withstand a major crisis in the economy and financial markets. Stress tests were largely instituted following the 2008 global financial crisis and have become a regular annual exercise in developed economies. In the U.S., for example, annual stress tests…

  • What Is An Economic Depression?

    Market observers have repeatedly thrown around the word "depression" to describe a severe economic downturn. However, when it comes to pinning down a specific definition of this term, there is no consensus. This article will explore the aforementioned concerns, reviewing varying definitions and the different ways to measure the severity of a downturn. What Is The Difference Between A Depression And A Recession? One good way to explain a depression…

  • Black Swan Event

    What Is A Black Swan Event? A "black swan" is a rare and nearly impossible to predict event that has deep and wide-ranging consequences for the global economy. Because black swan events have generally not happened previously, they are hard to plan for. Nevertheless, some people believe that, in hindsight, the event could have been foreseen and expected. The coronavirus pandemic of 2020 is a good example of a black…

  • Dotcom Bubble Of 2000

    What Is The Dotcom Bubble Of 2000? The "dotcom" bubble refers to the rapid rise and subsequent freefall in the price of internet stocks and the broader NASDAQ market that took place in the late 1990s. The collapse in 2000 prefigured the overall sharp drop in stock prices and the recession that followed, exacerbated by the terrorist attacks on 11th September 2001. NASDAQ, which to this day is heavily weighted…

  • What Is A Circuit Breaker?

    During times of extreme pricing volatility or market panic, the term "circuit breaker" is frequently used by traders, brokers and the financial media. Amid extraordinary events such as viral outbreaks or terrorist attacks, these devices are designed to prevent full-blown market crashes. Circuit Breaker Defined In the physical world, a circuit breaker is a safety mechanism used to cut the flow of electricity through a closed path. When engaged, electrical…

  • What Is A Currency Manipulator?

    The relative values of international currencies play a key role in global finance. Three areas that are particularly sensitive to exchange rate fluctuations are intercountry trade, pricing stability and regional economic growth. In practice, governments and central banking authorities implement a collection of unique mechanisms to promote the stability of their domestic money. Central banks frequently employ devices such as interest rate adjustments, debt purchases and pegs to manage exchange…

  • What Is The Difference Between Monetary Policy And Fiscal Policy?

    Monetary Policy Versus Fiscal Policy Governments have two main ways to influence their economies: Monetary policy is the actions taken by a country's central bank to regulate interest rates, control the supply of money and the amount of funds banks must hold rather than lend to their customers. Fiscal policy is the spending and taxation policies of the government that can influence how much money businesses and consumers have to…

  • Dutch Disease

    Conventional wisdom suggests that prosperity and currency appreciation are good for the welfare of a nation. However, if domestic wealth increases too quickly, a phenomenon known as Dutch disease may prove detrimental to the long-term economic health of an afflicted country. What Is Dutch Disease? Dutch disease is a financial expression used to describe the negative influence that a sudden appreciation of a nation's wealth and domestic currency can have…

  • Central Banks

    What Is A Central Bank? A central bank manages a nation's currency, money supply and interest rates and acts as a lender of last resort to the country's banks. Many are also responsible for regulating and supervising their country's banks. Many are set up to be independent from their government, although their directors are usually appointed by that country's chief executive or leader of government. Most countries have their own…

  • Basel Accords

    What Are The Basel Accords? The Basel Accords are a set of standards created by the Basel Committee to establish uniform banking regulation among the world's financial systems. The Basel Committee was originally called the Committee on Banking Regulations and Supervisory Practices, and it was headquartered at the Bank for International Settlements in Basel, Switzerland. It was created in 1974 by the central bank governors of the Group of Ten…

  • Bank For International Settlements (BIS)

    What Is The Bank For International Settlements? The Bank for International Settlements (BIS), also known as "the bank for central banks," defines its mission as being an "international organisation that serves central banks and other financial authorities across the globe to build a greater collective understanding of the world economy, fosters international cooperation among them and supports them in the pursuit of global monetary and financial stability." Based in Basel,…

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