Investing Terms

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  • Contribution Margin

    What Is Contribution Margin? Contribution margin is a business accounting term that measures the difference between sales revenue and the variable costs to produce or sell a product. It shows the amount of profitability a company would achieve once it covers its fixed costs, i.e., its breakeven point. A company's fixed costs remain basically the same whether it makes or sells one unit or thousands. The most common fixed costs…

  • Non-Deliverable Forward

    What Is A Non-Deliverable Forward? A non-deliverable forward (NDF) is a contract to buy or sell a specific currency at a specified price in which the settlement of the contract at expiration doesn't involve the physical delivery of the currency, hence the name. In general, NDFs are used to hedge or speculate in local currencies in emerging markets where the currency has low liquidity, is not freely convertible, or where…

  • Market Capitalisation

    In finance, the term market capitalisation is used to reference the aggregate value of a specific security, sector, exchange, or trading venue. Frequently shortened to "market cap," it may be calculated in a variety of ways and is especially useful when comparing the relative size of tradable securities or marketplaces. Stocks One of the most common applications of market capitalisation is to corporate stock offerings. According to the U.S. Securities…

  • Credit Default Swap

    What Is A Credit Default Swap? A credit default swap (CDS) is a financial derivatives contract that acts as an insurance policy that an investor takes out in order to protect against a bond issuer defaulting on its obligations to pay interest and repay principal. The investor "swaps" their risk with an insurance company, a bank, or a hedge fund. The institution accepts the risk against the bond, defaulting in…

  • What Is Standard Deviation In Forex?

    For active currency traders, market volatility presents a vast array of opportunities and challenges. Fluctuations in the exchange rates of forex pairs can occur rapidly and seemingly out of nowhere. If not consistently put into a manageable context, turbulent price action can prove detrimental to a trader's chances of sustaining long-run profitability. Standard deviation is one mechanism used by forex market participants to identify normal and abnormal moves in pricing.…

  • Pump And Dump Scheme

    A "pump and dump" is an illegal scheme used to artificially boost the price of a stock by making false and misleading claims about a company's business prospects. Then, the shares are sold before the fraud becomes known, at which point the stock price usually plummets and the unsuspecting investors lose their money. Pump and dump scams have been around for a long time but are now more commonly perpetrated…

  • Quick Ratio

    The quick ratio is an accounting formula that measures a company's short-term liquidity. Also known as the "acid test" ratio, the quick ratio is a more stringent measurement than the current ratio of a company's ability to meet its most short-term obligations, usually those due within 90 days. The formula for calculating the quick ratio is: Quick Ratio = (Cash + Marketable Securities + Receivables)/Current Liabilities Basically, the quick ratio…

  • Current Ratio

    The current ratio is a business accounting formula that measures a company's ability to pay its short-term obligations, namely those due within a year. The mathematical formula is expressed as: Current Ratio = Current Assets/Current Liabilities Current assets include cash and cash equivalents, securities that can be sold quickly, short-term investments, accounts receivable, short-term notes receivable, inventories and supplies, and prepayments. Current liabilities, which are obligations that must be paid…

  • Emergency Trading: What To Do When Facing The Unexpected

    Uncertainty plays a key role in active trading. A breaking news item, surprise economic fundamental, or geopolitical event may send markets reeling at a moment's notice. Whether one is trading equities, futures, or forex, it is wise to be aware of how unexpected events can impact profitability. However, what happens when an unexpected event prompts a disconnect from the market? While uncommon, systemic failures can make trade execution impossible and…

  • Liquidity

    Liquidity is the ability of an asset or security to be readily converted into cash. In active trading and finance, high degrees of liquidity are desirable. Liquid markets promote efficient trade, while corporate and personal solvency boost creditworthiness and value.

  • Weighted Average

    An important part of measuring various items in investing, a weighted average is a mathematical formula that takes into account the relative size or importance of each item in a list of financial data rather than a simple average.


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